Abstract: the article presents the results of a study of cognitive processes in mentally retarded children, as well as the dynamics of their development during correctional development work. The purpose of the article is to show the effectiveness of the program of corrective psychological work of cognitive processes in children with mental retardation. The results of the primary diagnosis revealed the presence of insufficient formation of long-term memory, visual-effective thinking and color perception in mentally retarded children. The obtained empirical data made it possible to more meaningfully develop a correction program, with the aim of developing motor-auditory and long-term memory, developing attention, logical thinking, speed of reaction, developing observation and perception. Conducting corrective work allowed us to demonstrate some dynamics in the development of cognitive processes in mentally retarded children. In the process of corrective work, a number of difficulties arose: the need to take into account the complex structure of the developmental features of each child, the nature of the combination of factors such as the severity of personality changes associated with the disease in the picture of his condition; different levels of intellectual development and a complex of concomitant diseases; problems in establishing a long contact with children; difficulties in explaining the task, in translating the usual instruction into a language that is understandable to children. The article emphasizes the importance of training such children in specialized educational institutions, the timely identification of characteristic deviations in the development of cognitive processes, the individualization of the approach in developmental work, the need for training parents and teachers on the development of cognitive mentally retarded children.
Keywords: cognitive processes of mentally retarded children, correctional development work